What started betting on sports

To learn what started gambling on sports one has to first examine the historical past of sports gambling in the US. The US had a long history of permitting certain types of legal gambling and even illegal betting to a certain degree. Political control and scandals regarding gaming interests have ended in certain backlashes which have resulted in prohibition or regulating sports gambling. Standards and laws relating to sports gambling have kept altering.

Nelson Rose describes these changes in law as three waves. The first wave was during the colonial era that lasted up until the mid 1800s, the 2nd wave started following the Civil War and lasted up until the early Twentieth century and also the 3rd wave commenced during the Great Depression and is still continuing.

Throughout the Colonial Era, diverse attitudes were enforced towards gambling. Puritan attitudes were adopted towards gambling and possession of dice, cards, gaming tables etc were outlawed. Afterwards it was allowed as long as it was not a calling or trade except for moderate and innocent recreation. Settlers brought with them views that said gambling was merely a harmless activity. The frontier spirit encouraged the appeal of gambling since it involved high risk, high expectations and opportunism. sport betting spread example

Ultimately all colonies used lotteries as a solution from economic problems as well as help the colonies. It became a civic responsibility and proceeds were used to establish a number of the first prestigious universities, build churches and even libraries. Lotteries continued to be popular right to the early 19th Century. Horse racing had also been popular and the Long Island built the very first race track in 1665. Casino gaming began to emerge slowly as roadhouses and taverns began to permit card games and dice.

The Lower Mississippi Valley became an organized and legitimate gambling area in 1800s. The mighty river featuring its riverboats was a major trade avenue for both wealthy merchants and farmers. New Orleans soon gained recognition as the gambling capital. Through the 1830s southern settlers turned against professional gamblers who had been held responsible for committing crimes, debasing morals of society and endangering streets. During 1800s there was increasing attack of gambling especially lotteries and whenever operators absconded with the proceeds lottery scandals eventually concluded in prohibition of gambling.

The Gold Rush in California triggered a tremendous increase in the kinds of gambling and San Francisco became the new gambling capital in the USA. During 1849 and 1855 gambling spread widely and also by 1850 California and many cities had licensed gambling centers. But soon the Legislature made most forms of gambling illegal and a number of professional gamblers were lynched. This prohibition drove wagering activities underground and could not eliminate it. Gambling was legal during 1869-1910 in Nevada.

It is easy to now understand what started gambling on sports in the US. With the numerous scandals within the lottery gambling segments, 35 states in America including California prohibited lotteries. In 1933 pari-mutuel betting was legalized and new automated systems and laws made horse racing betting more honest. In 1978 casino gambling was legalized by New Jersey and Atlantic City was a preferred tourist destination. Despite its illegality sports gambling became very popular and today is a high dollar industry.

Utilize sports handicapping analysis to get bigger wins

Just as you will need to research all of the facets of your business prior to starting off, so will you have to conduct an extensive research into all of the elements of gambling before you place any bet. Instead of merely depending on luck to bail you out there, it will be a good idea to use sports handicapping analysis to enhance your chances of winning a larger number of your bets.

While you might in theory possess a 50% possibility of winning or simply losing each and every placed wager, it is possible to surely tilt the odds to your benefit if you conduct an in depth analysis before the start of each game. Be it basketball, football, horse racing or even basketball, it is going to surely pay if you carry out your own handicapping exercise before placing your valuable bet. Your own handicapping analysis should include checking the form of each and every player, the overall performance of every team whilst additionally keeping track of winning as well as losing trends.

Furthermore, you must also keep an eye on the actual injury level of each player since this factor could certainly impact the performance of the player as well as the team in any forthcoming match. The odds set by way of numerous bookmakers too should be looked at meticulously because this will indicate the emotion of bookmakers and also the betting community. arbitrage betting 2013

Nevertheless, gathering and successfully processing this particular data could be time-consuming and if you do overlook any one factor then the outcome could have disastrous economical consequences. The world wide web however, posseses an answer to your difficulties. There are certain websites which have handicapping specialists that can cater to all of your questions and supply the solutions in the form of a computer program. These services are offered by such sites possibly for a reasonable fee or maybe for free by means of sports picks. It is possible to basically enter all of the necessary data right into a software package that may be very easily downloaded on your computer and the software can conduct the necessary analysis depending on various algorithms.

Alternatively, you may want to stay with a web site that has a skilled handicapping manager. This kind of professional manager would monitor every single team member, all past and present matches, betting odds, coaching methods and also closely observe personal injury levels in order to offer you high-quality picks that could have a better chance in improving your own odds on winning. This detailed analysis could enable you to put your own wager after becoming confident that you have a greater possibility of winning as compared to various other players who have put their wager only upon luck.

You should also visit sports forums so as to learn about the views of many other fellow bettors. A forum will help you to converse your ideas to various other like-minded gamblers as well as help you to exchange crucial tips with them. You should also go through on-line testimonials on several other websites to get a good all-round feel within the betting scene. Many a time, you might find out about a significant result-changing element which can help you to alter your wager at the last minute and earn lots of money in the process.

Sports handicapping analysis is a crucial resource to produce gambling predictions with increased accuracy. By using it yourself or even simply by teaming up with expert handicappers that offer vital picks, you could definitely beat the betting odds and win bigger prizes when you put your own wager.

Russian sports that have introduced the county into sporting news center

Russians as being a populace are very eager within sports activities and have excelled in a number of activities. The country has become a regular feature at the Olympics games obtaining higher rankings in a vast variety of games. Although as USSR the nation had been at its summit during the Olympics, even after the actual division Russia has been in a position to maintain its place that the Soviets had created.

The Russians have been around in all the sports news for their participation in a number of games like football, basketball, tennis, ice hockey, weight-lifting, boxing, gymnastics, skiing, figure skating and volleyball along with a host of various other sports activities.

Basketball developed in the country through the Soviet era. The Russian squad went on to acquire a number of Olympic medals for their performance within this activity. They are also the current winners in the Eurobasket World Championships having conquered Spain during the final game. They are also winners of a number of other European championships like the Euroleague as well as the ULEB Cup. They likewise have a player inside the Utah Jazz that is a NBA team. arbitrage betting tips

Ice hockey is certainly another very prosperous sport for the Russians. They have got around THIRTY players who are presently part of the NHL. The players nowadays continue to be maintaining the particular custom built throughout the Soviet era.

The Russians have taken forth their successful streak by being in the news for their achievement in the field of ice skating. Having been a part of the winner team of the Winter Olympics, they have excelled in ice dancing as well as pair skating.

Football had been probably the most flourishing sports activities during the Soviet era. With the split of USSR arrived the division of the national football teams and clubs. The most important amongst these was the actual falling apart of the Russian Premier League since it lost many of its players. However, the sport restored its lost glory and currently has 6 Premier League teams apart from it right now strong national team.

Ever since the end of the Soviet regime, Russia has grown as a powerhouse in the sport of tennis. A lot of the most successful women tennis players originate from this nation along with some formidable men tennis players as well. These strong Russians have been around in the news for their success in the Olympics, Wimbledon, Fed Cup, Davis Cup and several such premier matches.

Chess is actually another sport that Russians currently have dominated for a very long time having produced several world champs as well as Grand Masters. Yet another of Russia’s preferred sports would be the Rugby League. The Russians rank 13th amongst all the teams based on the Rugby League International Federation sports news. Rugby Union is another sports activity which is quickly gaining popularity between the Russian public, with the nation ranking 17th based on the International Rugby Board.

One of the sports that Russia has received a number of awards for is actually Rhythmic Gymnastics. Together with staying one of the most well-liked sports forms in the country, it has highlighted Russia across the world of sports news for owning the world’s best rhythmic gymnasts.

Enable the manager sports handicapping guide you to riches

Betting doesn’t depend merely on luck but also on handicapping skills too. If you’d like to enhance your luck to win extra money then you will have to depend on the handicapping skills of an expert handicapper. You can simply enable the manager sports handicapping assist you to riches while collecting a number of skills yourself.

A proficient handicapping manager will ideally have years of experience in a certain sport to back their decisions. In addition, such a manager will also know each rule of betting in the particular sport to perfection. These skills will enable the handicapper to closely observe coaching techniques of various participating teams, their winning and losing streaks and trends, the injuries suffered by and affecting the performance of key players, the predicted weather on the day of the forthcoming game, the odds displayed by various bookmakers, and a lot of such factors which may affect the outcome of the match along with the bet.

These skills take years to master and if you’re a rookie bettor then you might simply drown within this sea of data that may have to be processed before each game. Even when you do find a way to conduct a thorough analysis of the available data, you could possibly still finish up by making a mistake in the prediction. This will leave you with a lost bet and also a loss of desire for betting any further. On the other hand, if you do manage to hook up with an honest and efficient sports handicapping manager then you could simply bank on his or her handicapping skills to earn some truly serious money.

You can jump on to any sports betting exghange (betfair.com is the largest) that caters to your favorite sport and you will then surely find a sports betting handicapper offering his or her services within this site. There are additional sites too including Kelso that offer a host of other services including free picks and links for some other sporting websites. Should you be unsure on the way to locate a reputed handicapping manager then you should join a sports forum and inquire around while you chat while in the virtual chat-room. You’re likely to find several reviews extolling or cursing different handicapping managers. These reviews will let you seek out the best handicapper that might help you to win more bets.

Most handicappers use custom-designed software that accepts all related data that includes tracking and monitoring all previous games and each players history in great detail. This software then displays predictions which the handicapper then provides its members as free or premium picks. You can now start using these picks to place your bets as well as tracking these picks for a longer period of time. This can present you with concrete information as to whether the picks proposed by a particular handicapping manager are actually helping you to win more bets and a lot more money. sport betting excel template

An efficient handicapping manager will assist you to avoid pitfalls that could cut short your betting journey and prevent you from losing interest in your selected sport itself. So, enable the manager sports handicapping assist you from the start itself so your betting career gets on to a flying start.

Easiest deposit choices for sports gambling online

You can find easiest deposit options for sports gambling online that are offered at different gambling sites. It has made sports gambling online extremely simple and convenient www.bet4al.com. Internet gambling has got the attention of most traditional gamblers and several have switched to this particular time and energy saving mode of gambling. A large number of online sports books provde the gambler a variety of sporting events to pick from, easy deposit options for deposit, transfer and withdrawal of money through e-check, neteller etc.

What is important for the online gambler to try and do is to make sure that they opt for a reliable, trustworthy sportsbook online that doesn’t only has an excellent customer service that is round-the-clock and efficient, but handle fast and timely payouts. The main concern of the online gambler is definitely the handling of his hard earned cash and winnings. In case the sportsbook is a reliable one that is discreet in handling personal accounts and information, then the gambler is at ease and comfy in placing his bets online. Since most of the sportsbooks are offshore, the question of shady and unreliable dealings keeps sprouting up.

Ever since the US passed it’s UGEIA bill a few years back, it has been somewhat of a bother to deposit funds in your sportsbook account online, These deposit options will assist you to with all your deposit and withdrawal etc.

Credit Cards: This can be the quickest and easiest way of depositing funds into your online sportsbook account. The problem that could arise is that sometimes banks do blacklist transactions pertaining to internet gambling. However credit cards continue to be a great option.

Moneybookers: This can be the very best option for those people who are not Americans (you can read why at http://gertgambell.net/moneybookers-payments-system-speeds-up-your-winnings/) who will be moving money a number of online sportsbooks. Funding your moneybookers account by bank transfer or credit card and then funding your online sportsbook account is easy.

Neteller: This is great for non Americans but is no longer a deposit choice for US residents following the UGEIA bill.

E-wallet Express is a simple deposit choice for both US and Canadian clients.

Click2pay: This is safe, simple and fast payment option that many online sportsbooks accept. You can instantly transfer your hard earned money from your personal bank checking account.

Instadebit: This deposit choice is also another secure and safe way to transfer funds, make payments online etc for American players.

Bank Wire: This an acceptable deposit option for sportsbooks especially for large amounts of money – 100% safe but slow.

Sportsbook Transfer: This is a deposit and transfer option that permits the transfer of funds from one online sportsbook to a different online sportsbook.

Some of the easiest deposit choices for sports gambling is offered by renowned sportsbooks of excellent repute and who definitely are trustworthy and known for their timely and quick payouts. These sportsbooks are Sportsbetting that is among the finest sports books that accept both Visa and Mastercard, 5Dimes is among the most trusted and oldest sportsbooks that offer generous bonuses and fast payouts. Bodog, Sportsbet, BetUS, Pinnacle etc are also reputed sportsbooks with great deposit options.

Make use of the right arbitrage calculator at the proper time to win big

If you wish to win money after each bet regardless of the outcome of the game then you should use the right arbitrage calculator at the right time to win big bet24hour.com. Arbitrage betting offers you a wonderful opportunity to win money by betting on all possible outcomes of a game to win decent numbers of money provided you stick to a few basic steps as well as get your calculations right.

Since all bookmakers have their own version of the outcome of each match, they offer different betting odds to their players. Your key to winning each bet irrespective of the result of the match is to identify the chances put on such bets and place your bets with bookies that appear to favor the obvious favorite or perhaps the underdog with higher odds . The next move should be to calculate the amounts that you’d need to bet with all the bookmakers that favor opposing opponents or teams with your favorite sport and calculate the amount that you’ll win and also lose when either of the outcomes is achieved after the match or game.

However, one small error with your calculations would result in lower winnings or worse, could turn your sure bet to a loss. The thing you need is definitely an accurate arbitrage calculator that helps you to definitely take a look at either side of the coin virtually so that you end up getting a return regardless of the result of the match. Such a calculator is usually accessible in the form of an application program. This calculator will help you to input the total amount that you will be prepared to stake, the odds of the bet on sides together with the amount required to stake on those odds, as well as the total amount that you may win after the match, irrespective of its outcome. Such a calculator will be a boon before each bet mainly because it would indicate as to whether you’ve got a prospect of making any cash on an arbitrage and also the exact amount that you may win or lose if you place a bet on both teams or players or sides in the match.

You can easily locate this kind of arbitrage calculator at any reputed betting website and employ it to check on your own odds of winning the exact amount of money if you intend to engage in arbitrage betting. Such calculators are often offered as a free service at most of the websites. Even though the profits might not be high in placing such bets, you’ll definitely not lose money in any way and can sometimes end up having overwhelming profits. If you place several such bets in a day you’ll be able to surely end up having huge amounts of winnings after a few weeks or months.

However, your success in arbitrage betting also depends upon placing your bets at reliable websites run by ethical bookmakers that honor their bets and don’t alter the odds after you have placed your bet or perhaps cancel placed bets. A way of remaining safe in the world of online betting is to follow the advice and tips proposed by reputed betting expert Gert Gambell. You can visit his website gertgambell.net and may get free sports betting tips and his reliable free sports betting system to turn into an expert bettor in the future.

If the thought of losing money while betting on sports is keeping you awake during the night then you need not worry, since arbitrage betting can make sure that you win money regardless of the result of the match. You simply need an arbitrage calculator and a few good bookmakers to end up with winnings at the end of each match.

Understanding sports betting odds before making a killing

In case you have entered the betting arena without a clear strategy in mind then you could emerge out as a very disappointed bettor, plus you might also lose a lot of money at the same time. Just as a doctor would require the right skills before operating on a patient, you also must work tirelessly to understand sports betting odds before you make a killing in the betting arena.

Each exciting sport including boxing, tennis, golf, baseball, football, basketball, horse racing, car racing, and many such more are eligible for betting. Even when the sport is college football handled by way of the ncaa or pro football handled by the nfl, bets can be placed, although the odds will surely differ in each sport and each game too. Odds are also displayed differently in different countries. By way of example, USA displays odds as American odds, i.e. -100, -230, etc, while Canada, Australia and Countries in Europe display odds as Decimal odds, i.e. 2.50, 1.30, etc, and also the UK displays odds as Fractional odds, i.e. 8/8, 8/4, etc.

Sports betting odds also display the underdog team along with the top-dog, the over-under and the spread through which you need to win if you choose to bet for or against the spread. A simple example will explain betting odds easily. For example in an nfl match involving the Buffalo Bills and the New York Giants, the odds could be displayed as under

Buffalo Bills -11.2 -120 -160
New York Giants +11.2 -120 +270

The first sign near the teams name indicates the underdog and also the top-dog. Hence, Buffalo Bills would be the top-dog due to the “-” sign while the Giants are the underdogs because of the “+” sign next to it. The figure 11.2 signifies the spread and the favored team has to win with the points mentioned on the spread. The figure 120 implies that you will have to bet $120 to win $100 on that spread. The final figure of 160 next to the Bills indicates that you need to stake $160 to win $100 together with your stake on that bet since the Bills are the favored team to win. On the other hand, you only need to bet $100 to win $270 if you bet for the Giants as it is the underdog team. betting arbitrages robbie green

The above was an example of betting odds from the American odds format. Each bookie will display odds in numerous formats but you would be able to quickly convert it in your format by using the odds converter available in most websites. The world wide web has today definitely made betting easier even though you will definitely have to work towards understanding and calculating the betting odds before you place your bet.

You will certainly be in a position to bet efficiently and convert most of your placed bets into huge wins if you read and understand sports betting odds. Each sports book displays odds and you’ll have to select sites that have the most effective odds for you to bet on. Understanding sports betting odds is essential if you wish to beat the odds and also the bookies and make a killing by winning the maximum amount of bets.

Using the perfect online sportsbook very best promotions totally free money can certainly help get a good start

Your sports betting hobby or career needs all the help it can get for a smooth beginning. A proven way that could reduce the monetary weight on your pocket as well as allow you to have fun whilst betting could be to register with different sportsbooks that offer the very best marketing promotions. Using the perfect on line sportsbook best promotions totally free money will help receive a good start and you will be able to happily bet away into the future.

Online sportsbooks vie with one another to offer bettors the best deals in order to attract them straight into playing on their web site. While some sports books are generally genuine in their offers and also pay out winners rapidly, there are others who just go after gullible bettors. These kinds of internet sites may well offer you fabulous discount rates, absolutely free games as well as great odds, but over a brief period of time you could find out the reality behind these kinds of special offers. These websites will alter odds while not assigning any reason, cancel placed gambling bets without any warning and also hold up or refuse to pay out winnings citing silly reasons or perhaps request you to refer to their particular “fine print”.

It is thus essential that you refer to bettors testimonials that are posted on numerous sports gambling reviewing sites. This evaluation will certainly showcase the experience that bettors have had at that particular internet site along with a qualified evaluation as well if this website has tried out to profit from the sportsbook’s claims or promotions. You should consider enjoying merely with those bookmakers that follow-through their bets as well as pay out their winners without creating road blocks. You should not get lured by sports books that merely offer astounding discounts or free bonus deals since this is their way of trapping you inside their web-site.

Most sports book campaigns include totally free preliminary games, discounts on the very first game as well as future discounts on reloads as well as refills. This first discount or bonus will help you to begin wagering without putting a strain on your funds while allowing you to get the hang of gambling at that web site. Numerous sportsbooks also offer discount rates should you bring in your family and friends to this site. Now you can have fun gambling together with those close to you whilst getting a discount on your wagers as well. You can also become a member of a respected racebook if betting upon horses is your passion. best sport betting movies

Whilst looking for a reliable sportsbook is very important, it is equally important to win the majority of the bets that you place. If you do not possess expertise in reading or comprehending a sports betting line then you may still win on the experience of other people. Just go to websites like The Greek where you can get quality picks for free. These picks are picked by way of expert handicappers and over a longer period of time, you might notice that your wins tend to be more frequent and also fetching in larger amounts of money.

Although it is great to have so many web sites offering different marketing promotions to attract you in the direction of their internet site, it is very important that you wind up gambling solely with reputed sportsbooks. The very best online sportsbook very best promotions free money will help you receive a comfortable start as far as your finances are involved and you will swiftly learn the basics by the time you put gambling bets with your own money.

Types of boxing as well as its growing popularity in the world of sports news

Boxing is a kind of combat sport that involves two contenders or approximately the same structure in terms of weight and height fight each other with only their fists Centresbet-com. This sports form bears it earliest resemblance with the Minoan, Sumerian or Egyptian contest of fist fighting, as seen in many of their reliefs.

Organized boxing was seen to develop from the time of the ancient Greeks. Records show that the ancient Greeks were the very first people to formalize this sport by organizing several events and tournaments with such professional boxers. Boxing as being a sport was formally introduced in the realm of the Olympics approximately around 688BC.

Europe is said to generally be the birthplace of modern boxing, i.e. boxing as we know it today. Modern boxing sees the game being supervised by a referee who’s involved in the event during the rounds to see the game is being played in a good manner. A knock out, technical knockout or perhaps an injury that doesn’t enable the player from continuing the sport determines the winner.

Through the years you will find different styles and forms of boxing that have evolved. Since the sport became popular across the globe, different countries assigned their special names with their variation of boxing. A few of the popular styles of boxing are Thai boxing, French Boxing, Burmese Boxing, English Boxing etc. However, modern boxing does not allow kicking, something which is practiced in a few of the styles which are listed.

This popular sports form developed in the Greek and also the Roman times. It however degenerated following the fall of the Roman Empire but was resurrected in England about the 12th century and again continued to rise in popularity. Initially controlled by money mostly in the 17th to the 19th century, participants played for cash rewards, viewers bet on the players to earn money and the promoters of the game controlled the gates.

In 1908 boxing made a comeback in the organized sports world with amateur boxing being declared an Olympic event in 1908. Modern boxing then came into sports news when two distinct platforms were created for this sport; that of amateur boxing and professional boxing. Amateur boxing is more of the collegiate level sport but finds a spot within the Olympic and Commonwealth games. The amount of rounds in amateur boxing is fewer and shorter than professional boxing.

Also the scores are mostly in line with the number of clear blows landed on the opponent than any actual physical damage caused. Professional boxing however continues for a lot longer and have almost twelve rounds and it is more tough in its nature. Professional boxers are not allowed to wear any head gear, unlike amateur boxers, and are at risk of more injuries and physical damage. The referee though is the controller and can stop a fight in the case of a boxer being unable to defend himself because of a serious injuries.

Today news for boxing includes more than just inside reviews of the games being played, but in addition consist of interviews, details of upcoming fights, schedules, rankings and player interviews.

Where to locate the most effective Sports Betting Picks

Wondering where you can find the best sports betting picks available? If so www.bettingconfidence.com, take a look online for as you may know, sports betting on the internet has been growing on a daily basis. It is actually estimated that by the year 2007, the web based gaming industry will rise to more than 10 billion dollars strong inspite of the controversies and the questions on legalities all around the sports betting arena.

However, with countless sports betting sites over the internet accepting wagers from bettors around the world, finding the right portal to locate and purchase the best sports betting picks might be difficult . Thanks, however, to many online reviews that the best sportsbooks you can find the best sports betting picks and bet on your favorite sports team known to man.

Now, if you want to determine what sportsbooks are best with regards to best sports betting picks along with other services, below is a list of the most active and visited sportsbooks that you might want to consider:

GertGambell.net possess a “good bookmaker list” that many call invaluable. Then:

Pinnacle Sportsbook

Pinnacle Sportsbook is a great site to go to for the best sports betting picks available online. For long years, this portal has been viewed as probably the largest and most updated sportsbook available. It is licensed by the Dutch government in Curacao, in addition to being a top rated portal for top sports betting picks, Pinnacle Sportsbook abide by its code of conduct. Also, apart from providing the best sports betting picks, Pinnacle Sportsbook provides 24 hour payouts as well as a 10% join up sportsbook bonus. And, unlike other betting companies online, Pinnacle Sportsbook assure that their clients deposits are located in an insured escrow account until the results of particular wager is determined.

Betmaker Sportsbook

Betmaker Sportsbook is certainly considered to be a number one destination for the best sports betting picks and sports betting information, as well as casino gambling. This portal basically offers you the most convenient, simple and safe sports betting service, including some free best sports betting picks. They also provide great customer support, generous cash bonuses on deposits, no deposit fees, and a lots of sports betting odds with absolute security and privacy. They have got the best sports betting picks for whatever sports you might be enthusiastic about, like football, baseballs, hockey, and a lot more.

Bodog Sportsbook

Bodog Sportsbook is really a world leader and innovator among the list of available online sportsbooks and casinos. This portal has long been supplying the best sports betting picks that are available totally free and for purchase for more than Ten years, and today, Bodog Sportsbook specializes in offering its players the best and newest sportsbook bonuses in sports betting and casino technology. They offer such types of sports betting services with the highest standards of monetary assurance in addition to security.

Sportbet Sportsbook

Established in 1997, Sportbet Sportsbook is currently located, regulated and licensed in the Costa Rica. Perhaps what is best in regards to this sports betting company is they endeavor to provide the best sports betting picks and a classy customer service, with the fast payouts and generous signup bonuses for all of their players. Whats more, this notable portal for the best sports betting picks supplies a range of picks for a variety of sports, such as hockey picks, baseball picks, football picks, plus much more. Some of those picks are for free, while others are for buying.